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Buffalo varieties and breeding

Buffalo varieties and breeding
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Buffalo varieties and breeding

Buffalo


Bisons are native to Indian bison and have spread to southern South Asia. It was described in India about 2500 years ago before j. C, but he was used as a young spy who started a short time ago. Suitable for water areas in Asia and southern Europe, the buffalo lives in the tropical regions of the northern hemisphere, while in the southern hemisphere there is little buffalo in southern Indonesia and in Latin America.
Some buffalo qualities:

There are many types of large buffalo such as ạlmwrạ,. And the ports. These species are widespread in India, Pakistan and Egypt, and there are small species such as buffalo.

Body weight:
For men from 300 to 800 kg

Women 250 to 650 kg

Body height:
For men 120-150 cm

For women 250-135 cm

Body shape:
The chest is relatively long, the chest is small, the legs are large and the large heads with a broad forehead and a long face.

Color & #
The color of the buffalo is black or gray and black skin.

Breastfeeding:
It consists of 4 distinct glands of structure, each called a quarter and ends with globalization and the blacks are generally larger but the nipples are shorter than the front pieces, and 60% of the milk production comes from the pieces the bottom of the concretisera This is

Milk production:
8-18 kg / day.

Milk season:
180 days.

Duration of pregnancy:
307 days.

The weight of the calf at birth is 35 to 42 kg.

The weight of the wheel at birth is 28 to 38 kg.

Age at sexual puberty:
13-15 months.

Age at the enriched vaccination:
24-30 months.

These differences are due to different levels of nutrition and inadequate elections in animals.

But with quality care and balanced nutrition, the age of vaccination has dropped to 15 to 18 months, as shown by the results of research conducted at the Buffalo Breeding Stations of the Institute for Production Research.

Age at first birth:
30-34 months.

With quality care and healthy nutrition, the age of first birth varies between 25 and 28 months.

This means reducing the cost of nutrition during the unproductive period of animal life and increasing the productivity of universities.

Habits:
The Egyptian Buffalo can live in hot and humid areas, and it is our for the different environments even dry and the buffalo prefers to bathe in the mud on hot days, he prefers rivers and swimming pools for bathing. It can feed on khechna materials of low nutritional value, where the buffalo has the ability to digest poor food-value foods such as rice and rice, because of the size of the belly, and that the belly content is higher as the bacteria that digested the food. And a little compared to cows.

The Egyptian Buffalo as a milk animal:

For a long time, milk and its products have been considered as important sources of food for humans. A good harness model that produces milk must be thin if viewed from the narrow front and front waist and foreground size, the composition and skin is supple and the skin is supple and the belly is Its contact from behind to the top is "Non-m" and the nipples are regular, consistent and well placed on breastfeeding.

Nutrition and its methods:
Food rations:

The quantities of energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins necessary for the preservation of the healthy animal as well as those necessary for production are determined.

The following are the meals of the universities (Ghanim 1967).

Portfolio needs & #

0.51 kg equivalent per 100 kg live weight and 50 grams digested protein per 100 kg live weight.

Productivity needs:

Every kilo of 7% fat milk needs 0.37 kg high equivalent in addition to 86 grams of digested protein.

Needs of pregnancy:

During pregnancy (two months before giving birth), the animals are treated like milks of 2 kg of milk, which adds 2 kg of milk to 7% of fat.

Composition of the box & #

To calculate the buffalo stop, it is necessary to know the living average weight of the harness, the amount of milk it produces and the average fat content in the milk, as well as the energy content in the diet. digested protein The dry matter is also taking into account the maximum absorption capacity of the dry substance, which is 2 to 4% of body weight, and there are tables of analysis of all agricultural crops used for nutrition by the Animal Feed Research Section The era of research on organic production and the content of energy, protein, dry matter and certain mineral salts can be used for the work of these materials .

In general, concentrated feeds used to feed bison can be divided according to their protein and energy content, as follows:

Foods high in protein (25-44% protein): such as gaining cotton, earning flax, winning sunflowers and earning soy and soy.

Average protein and energy diet (11-14% protein, 35-50% equivalent to the origin): like apostasy, the. And the concentrated forage.

High energy foods (70-82% equivalent) such as barley, barley and high quality.

The c uses the complete dirt (en) to feed the buffalo with 12% of proteins, 22% equivalent to the origin.

Green foods are 7-11% equivalent to starch and 0.4-2.5% digested protein.

On a scientific level, the Egyptian peasant feeds the buffalo until death on clover from November to May, and clover can cover the complete needs of harnesses, but with a great shortage of protein, it is therefore advisable to feed next to clover on Some concentrated foods and some dry products such as adoption, rice and medicine, supplying a portion of clover and keeping some clover for the summer and clover has a food value equal to 7-10 1.8-2.5 digested protein.

The clover clover is given 4-5 vicious and each clipper weighs 5-7 tons of green clover and after the green clover season comes the dry summer season which runs from June to October and the Egyptian bison in this period on the electronic more concentrated Adopt wheat or rice straw with clover leaves or green summer foods, if any, and green summer foods have a food value equal to 8-11% of digested protein.

Feeding system:
Individual nutrition:

The animal is given to the animal according to its direction and is generally followed with the buffalo on the Adrar or in case of some numbers.

Collective nutrition:
Collective nutrition works well. The buffalo must be divided into groups, and each group is held in separate monsters, for example in the case of a large herd of buffalo which must be divided into three groups.

First group:
The buffalo gathers newborns and wheels that are born for the first time. These animals stay in this group for 10-20 weeks and feed on the clipboard as well as milk production needs, over 10-20% of portfolio needs or productivity.

Second group:
The low adrar buffalo or buffalo which is at the end of the milk season and which also gives this group its conservative needs in addition to the needs of milk production. Most electronics are supplied in the ạlạḥwạsẖ and a small amount of concentrated electronics is given to the animal during the milk.

Fhoul Food:
The fertility of the fhoul is affected by the nutrition and virility that feeds more and more, and men who feed on very low diets do not have the energy to produce intention liquid. Men must therefore remain in a medium physical state. To calculate the needs of the portfolio, it is assumed that they are 100 kg more than the average weight of buffalo females.

During the vaccination season, the needs of the portfolio increased by 1-1.5 kg (2-3 kg of concentrated food).

Reproduction & #
Body of the woman:

The ovary consists of the crust, which contains eggs. And, in general, only one cyst explodes and an egg is released at the time of ovulation and perhaps some cases of multiple ovulation occur. In addition to the production of the egg, the ovaries produce hormones that finish the genitals, which make buffalo and organize the pregnancy at least in its early stages. After fertilization, the ovarian chain transmits the divided egg to the uterus and the buffalo uterus consists of two centuries that is with the small body of the uterus The uterus lends itself to the massive growth of the fetus before birth, the vagina and the code make up the rest of the device.

The age at sexual puberty in the 15-18 month old buffalo is affected by sexuality and nutrition level and is not generally used to vaccinate buffalo females before 18 months of age.

I am an Egyptian bison that can be pollinated at any time of the year and shows m² every 20 days between the end of the sẖyạ' period and the beginning of the next period, and the Randy period is about 12 hours and the tab appears after the end An hour.

The manifestations of sqm in Egyptian bison are less visible than in cows and about 86% of sqm in Egyptian buffalo are something quiet, especially in summer.

Natural changes in temperature, nature and amount of secretions are unreliable as an indicator of and, and the occurrence of m 2 in buffalo is generally evident between 70 am and 70 am (70%). Cases).

To overcome the phenomenon of silent mud in the Egyptian buffalo, he prefers to use a complete male and left with buffalo females to discover males and women who discover pollination as follows:

(1) Buffalo females whose manifestations appear in the morning pollinating the afternoon of the same day.

2) women whose manifestations manifest themselves in the afternoon pollination the next morning, while the manifestations of the sqm are those of other animals or males, as evidenced by himself on other animals and on other appearances on which it is based Identify the swelling of the cleft of life and make a transparent snot, as well as the instability of the animal, the algorithms, the loss of appetite and the low milk production
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Vaccination in the buffalo:
Natural vaccination:

The on are allowed to stay with the buffalo females to vaccinate them and a stallion for 30-40 ja women or pollination when the appearance of sqm by fhoul reserved in a separate place can be used for older men but good genetic qualities or heavyweight men when they are receiving.

Artificial vaccination:

The successful use of artificial vaccination to vaccinate buffalo females and the main features of this vaccination is that genital diseases can be controlled, and each spear of the male contains more sperm than one vaccination at a time and a reduction of liquid intention can increase the platelets of. can therefore produce a large number of calves and wheels per man. We must therefore check in the election of men used for artificial insemination.

After assembly and examination of the intention liquid, it is mixed with a soothing to increase its size and increase the lifespan of the animals, and in spite of the difficulties of gel of the liquid, it can be frozen and preserved to a degree The temperature is very low and remains valid for several years, and the liquid intention can be maintained at a temperature of -196 ° C in liquid nitrogen. On the farm, there are two methods of vaccination:

First case :
The fresh gene liquid is used (just after collection):

After collecting, examining and fearing the intention liquid of the stallion, the patient must remove the intention liquid in a sterile glass or plastic tube through an intravenous, and tube enters the tube and the cervix. is then must by the intention liquid, and each industrial tube uses a new tube, and this method is used in the absence of the means necessary to freeze and retain the intention liquid.

Second case:
It is used in the:

The required dose of liquid intention is frozen in a hollow plastic tube in the laboratory and is kept as a freezer, and during vaccination, the tube containing the frozen gene liquid is tsyyḥ in hot water and is then put in a metal mask attached to the stapler and its running out the liquid intent with the plastic tube in the catcher.

The time of intercourse or vaccination is very important in the vaccination process, and it is important to know if the fertilization rate is less than 16-18 hours after the end of the sq, where the fertilization rate is higher low than expected if buffalo females are victims They can be learned because non-fertilization causes an increase in the children's period and reduces the number of births, which increases the lifespan of the animal. If the symptoms of the disease occur after 20 days of vaccination, the vaccination should be. If signs of pregnancy have not appeared, buffalo wheels and mothers should be examined after 45 days of vaccination through the body to determine pregnancy or not!

Buffalo and calf care during and after childbirth:
A) buffalo care:

The buffalo must be isolated from the rest of the pack so that it is not disturbed by the other buffalo and protected from other buffalo females that are in case of sẖyạ' or men.

There are special signs on the buffalo, near the birth, including inflation, the with, the hole of life and the fall of the ligaments around the summit. At this point, the buffalo must be transported to the delivery room which must be clean, clean, clean and well chilled and well driven with its throne of straw.

The first signs of birth in the buffalo are the appearance of the legs before, followed by the nose and any abnormal situation. The delivery takes place within 4 hours and the period is long; you have to ask for a veterinary intervention.

After delivery, the outer part of the purification system, hot water, warm water and any suitable disinfectant should be washed

The placenta descends from the natural buffalo within 2-4 hours after delivery. If the placenta is not expelled within 8-12 hours, the animals receive substances that works them. If the duration is more than 12 hours, the veterinarian must intervene because it is considered a negative retention and its effects on the health of the animal.

After birth, the buffalo should be fed with facilitation materials such as wet apostasy and green foods, as well as green foods, and barley to help the placenta fall.

B) care for newborns:
Immediately after birth, it must be ensured that the mucus in the nose and calf's mouth is implemented, if it can not breathe, this process is performed by putting the calf on one side and pressing several times on the rib cage.

Cut the umbilical cord 5 cm from the calf's belly and put iodine tincture for cleaning and do not be tied until its fluids are flooded.

Breastfeeding should be washed before breastfeeding so that the calf is not infected.

It must be ensured that the new calf has a failure in the first three hours of birth and that the calf continues to breastfeed for 3 days because the immune body that is transmitted directly into the blood system of the calf is protected. Calf is immune to disease (up to 6 months of age) because calf intestines can absorb the body's immune system up to 36 hours of birth, then the gut loses this characteristic, and the repetition rate is high. Vitamin A and vitamin D, repetition is not only an immune system, but also food.

New calves should be placed in separate areas to prevent the spread of any disease that appears in the calves, and also each calf can be observed separately.

The calves feed on milk using nipple bottles or basins, taking into account the necessary precautions for the cleanliness of the tools and the temperature of the milk which must be at body temperature (38 m) and the workers trained to calf nutrition

Secondly, the industrial breastfeeding diet uses buffalo on milk according to weight.
This system gives the calf 1/10 kg of whole milk divided into two meals of the morning and evening, so that the quantity given to the man per day does not exceed 5-6 kg of milk This system continues to feed until by the fifth week, and then progressively reduces the amount of milk supplied until weaning at the age of 15 weeks, with the amount of clovers and calf feed, as indicated in the previous table, taking into account the provision of There are no intestinal disorders by presenting a wild clover the day before nutrition and in summer it replaces clover with a good clover leaf and 4 kg green clover with a good book.

According to this diet, the weight of the calf can reach 15 weeks on average to 95 kg. Drinking water must be supplied to calves from the second week on, and there must be monsters so that calves can walk daily.

Some common diseases in calves:
Small calves are often susceptible to certain diseases and most of these diseases can be overcome through care, complete hygiene and good nutrition.

Diarrhea:
Small calves generally have diarrhea, especially during the first three weeks of life due to diseases or disorders of the digestive system.

Diarrhea caused by disease is caused by the presence of calves in unclean contaminated circuits or dirty bowls, diarrhea can be high, which can lead to increased mortality in calves, and it is best to give antibiotics for the baby in The flock is shed immediately after delivery with the cleaning of the shelters, either the diarrhea caused by digestive disorders may be due to excessive nutrition, to a diet not regular or changing weather conditions, and can be overcome This phenomenon should be used with antibiotics and doses of El Salvador, continuous cleaning of the land, shelter and nutrition with adequate amounts of milk for the baby, if any, with the

Pneumonia:
Any vulnerability factor in small calves can help catch pneumonia.

Pneumonia is worsening especially in calves with diarrhea that have not been treated or due to a significant change in the temperature of the atmosphere or exposure of the calves, all of which leads to pneumonia.

Infected calves breathe rapidly, accompanied by fever and a rise in body temperature, calves lose their appetite, and since pneumonia is a contagious disease that can spread rapidly among calves, isolate Infected calves and prevent their confusion With healthy calves, this situation can be treated in advance and antibiotics are under the supervision of the veterinarian.

Ạlqrạ'
It is a fungal infection that affects the calf skin and the place of injury is to be and without stiff hair and skin. If this place of injury is not treated, this episode increases in volume and the infection spreads elsewhere in the skin. This usually occurs in winter, when calves live in closed areas to protect them from the cold, and the treatment of ạlqrạ 'involves curettage and washing the area infected with water and soap with appropriate medications.

Care and accommodation:
In the design of the buffalo accommodation, consideration must be given to the comfort and health of the animal and the economic use of its work in milking, nutrition, natural or industrial lighting daylight hours should allow all animals to clearly see all animals, as well as sufficient lighting that must be available to observe animals at all times, as well as the different buildings and farm facilities that arrive. The buffalo must be without edges or, and there must be no toxic paint.

Types of accommodation:
If the buffalo does not offer good housing, animals are exposed to extreme weather conditions, especially during the summer, which leads to a deterioration in the health and productivity of universities and General, the buffalo can be produced under different conditions. For accommodation ranging from total restriction to milk time limitation:

Traditional barn:
Under this regime, the buffalo is tied in gardens all year round, where animals must be allowed to walk every day in the yard. Good ventilation in the barn is necessary, but avoid drafts, extreme temperatures and high humidity.

If the number of animals of the pack is small, they can link these animals in a single row, or in the most numerous herds, the animals are in two and face to the face for the harnesses and. The distribution of electronics over the summer, the length of the parking space of 1.6 meters and the ground must descend to the manure channel for the spill to be good and complete.

The singular object of buffalo must have a goal of 1.1 meters, which allows the animal to rest and divide the bolt in which the metal pipes are used, in some cases the separation is usually made of cement and padded from the inside to be Smooth, one of the advantages of this system is that each buffalo can be observed at a time and that the amount of food per animal can be controlled and contributes to the cleanliness of the animals.

One of the disadvantages of this system is the restriction of animal freedom and the need for more workers for hygiene and

Free Hangar Accommodation:
The free housing system is defined as a system in which the animals are free, except during milk and during the treatment or industrial exploitation of the animal, this economist system and its advantages:

The cost of construction is much cheaper than the conventional type.

An extension of the barn can be made without major changes.

The animals are easily discovered.

Animals have good quality to improve public health and production

Needs to provide:

Be next to the buffalo buffalo opportunities for the milk storage chambers to settle it as well as booths for the Jules and warehouses for thousands.

In all monsters, there must be an umbrella, a place to feed, a place to drink and a place to rest.

The roof of the umbrella can be cement ạlm'rj or panels of iron arja.

The umbrella should not be less than 4 meters and the width of the umbrella should be 4.5-6 meters and the length of the umbrella is depending on the size of the flock

We must plant trees around the forest to bring them to light, as well as the rust of the wind during the winter and the atmosphere in summer.

The light doors allow access to tractors for cleaning operations.

Milk systems:

The milk harvest is the end result in the milk plantations, while the milk production continues, the milk is obtained twice a day, the recipes of milk include: milk at regular intervals, fast and calmly, the emptiness of whole milk and the use of a good purification and an optimal use of the job.

Manual milk:
This system is widespread in Egypt, given the number of animals owned by each farmer, and it should be noted that:

The cleanliness of the animal before the operation of envy and especially breastfeeding.

The cleanliness of the tools used in milking.

Doing, focused on the animal in the milking to encourage the animal to milking

The rapid treatment of milking to reduce the cycle of hormone responsible for the fall of milk in the animal body.

Teams must be well trained and disease-free and not use finger rings to avoid injuring breastfeeding.

Automatic Milk & #

The buffalo milking machine is automatic and the milk machine is made up of four glasses for milk-milk nipples, and these are linked to the air pump to help remove the milk from the breast by the delivery, and the teams must The use of the automatic milk machine must be well used according to the instructions of his production company and must be taken into account:

Milk at regular intervals.

Wash and clean with warm water for 15-30 seconds and cook with paper towels used once per buffalo to remove dirt and prevent the release of milk.

Breastfeeding massage for animal urge

He took two or two bottles of milk in a test glass of breastfeeding disease, because the first dose of milk contains a high proportion of white blood cells and bacteria and must be excluded, which gives a quick idea of ​​knowing if the milk is abnormal.

Put the glasses on the nipples with care in a minute (30-60 seconds) after washing the nipples, where the effective level of ecstasy hormones responsible for the milk drop stays in the blood for only 6-8 minutes.

You must stop the milk process in due time, when the circulation of milk stops and reaches 0.25 kg of milk, because the average time required for the buffalo if you milk it correctly is 5 minutes.

They put me in the machine a few seconds before the end of the milking.

Removes the milk machine as soon as the milk flows and the drain must be separated first.

Dip the nipples in purgatory after the milk.
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